Despite decreases in the overall rates of under nutrition in Indonesia over the past 2 decades, stunting among children under 5 y of age still remains at 37.2% (Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia 2014). Such high rates of stunting are associated with increased morbidity and poor cognitive development, which can have lasting adverse effects on attained height and work productivity in adulthood. Most of the stunting in Indonesia occurs during the period of complementary feeding which should commence from 6 mo of age when breast milk alone is no longer sufficient to meet the high nutritional needs of infants. To encourage the provision of nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding to at least 24 mo of age, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines for infant and young child feeding (IYCF) (World Health Organization/UNICEF 2003; World Health Organization 2010). However, in Indonesia compliance to these IYCF guidelines has been poor. In a recent national survey, only 35% of breastfed children aged 6 to 23 mo were fed according to the WHO IYCF guidelines (Ng and others 2012). Hence, it is not surprising that major deficits in the micronutrient adequacy of complementary diets for Indonesian children 6 to 23 mo of age have been reported. Specifically, consistently large discrepancies between the content of iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin B-12, and sometimes vitamin A— in complementary foods of breastfed children and the amounts required have been identified (Ferguson and others 2006; Santika and others 2009). These deficits arise in part because their ricebased complementary foods have a low dry matter content and are rarely enriched with animal-source foods, dark green leafy vegetables or yellow-orange fruits. As a consequence, a high prevalence of anemia and coexisting micronutrient deficiencies has been reported during early childhood in Indonesia (Dijkhuizen and others 2001; Lind and others 2004).
JFDS-2016-2186 Submitted 12/29/2016, Accepted 6/10/2017. Author Duizer is with Dept. of Food Science, Univ. of Guelph, Canada N1G 2W1. Authors Diana, Luftimas, Rahmannia, Santi, and Nugraha are with Faculty of Medicine, Univ. Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia. Author Rathomi is with Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Bandung, Indonesia. Authors Diana, Haszard, Gibson, and Houghton are with Dept. of Human Nutrition, PO Box 56,Univ. of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Direct inquiries to author Houghton (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)